Electrical Power Systems Protection,
Monitoring & Control Course

Certified for 3 CPD Points (ECSA)

21 - 23 September 2022
Sandton Centre Johannesburg South Africa

Register Now! Few Seats Available!

Public R14, 999.00

Online R10, 999.00

Online R10, 999.00

Public R14, 999.00

Online R10, 999.00

Course overview:

Any power system is prone to ‘faults’ (also called short-circuits), which occur mostly as a result of insulation failure and sometimes due to external causes. When a fault occurs, the normal functioning of the system gets disturbed. The high current resulting from a fault can stress the electrical conductors and connected equipment thermally and electro-dynamically. Arcs at the fault point can cause dangerous or even fatal burn injuries to operating and maintenance workers in the vicinity. Faults involving one phase and ground give rise to high ‘touch’ and ‘step’ voltages posing a danger of electrocution to personnel working nearby. It is, therefore, necessary to detect and clear any fault quickly. The first device used in early electrical systems was the fuse, which acted both as the sensor and the interrupting device. With larger systems, separate devices became necessary to sense and interrupt fault currents. In the beginning, these functions were combined in a single assembly; a circuit breaker with in-built releases.

This course will explain all of these points in detail and provide you with the skills and knowledge necessary to calculate fault currents, select relays, and associated instrument transformers appropriate to each typical system or equipment. You will also learn how to adjust the setting of the relays so that the relays closest to the fault will operate and clear the fault faster than the backup devices.

Course Objectives:

  • Understand protection system components and Perform simple relay settings
  • Choose appropriate protective devices for different equipment
  • Interpret the protection systems in your plant, detect any shortcomings and be able to explain any undesired or uncoordinated relay operation
  • Recognize different fault types in electrical power system networks
  • Perform more informed decisions on fault and design calculations
  • To significantly improve your site’s transmission and distribution reliability while avoiding endangering the lives of workers and the general public, as well as preserving company assets

Who should attend?

  • Field Technicians
  • Electricians
  • Operations Managers
  • Maintenance Supervisors
  • Plant Engineers
  • Plant Operators
  • Electrical Engineers
  • Project Engineers
  • Electrical Technicians
  • Instrumentation Engineers
  • Design Engineers
  • Workplace Safety Professionals

Course Outline:

Session 1

Need for protection

  • Selectivity, stability, sensitivity, speed, reliability, dependability, security

Fault types  and their effects

  • Active, incipient, passive, transient, asymmetrical
  • Phase & earth faults

Simple calculation of short circuit currents

  • Revision of simple formulae
  • Calculation of short circuit MVA & fault currents
  • Worked examples

System Earthing

  • Solid, impedance, touch potentials
  • Effect of electric shock
  • Earth leakage protection

Lightning and Lightning Protection

  • Physics of Lightning
  • Electrical Surges due to Lightning
  • Lightning Waveforms
  • Lightning Protection Systems (Evaluation and Selection)
  • Lightning Protection of Electricity Supply Systems
  • Lightning Protection for Buildings

Instrument Transformers

  • Current transformers: construction, performance, specification, magnetization, curves
  • Voltage transformers: types, accuracy, connections

Session 2

Circuit Breakers

  • Purpose & duty, clearance times, types

Tripping Batteries

  • Battery types, chargers, maintenance, D.C. circuitry


  • Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) relay
  • Construction principles and setting
  • Calculation of settings – practical examples
  • New Era – modern numerical relays & future trends

Practical demonstrations and sessions

  • Including simple fault calculations and relay

Co-ordination by time grading

  • Problems in applying IDMT relays

Low Voltage Networks

  • Air & molded circuit breakers
  • Construction and installation
  • Protection tripping characteristics
  • Selective co-ordination (current limiting, earth leakage protection, cascading)

Principles of unit protection

  • Differential protection – basic principles

Session  3

Feeder Protection

  • Cables
  • Pilot Wire Differential
  • Overhead Lines
  • Distance Protection (basic principles, characteristics, various schemes)

Transformer Protection

  • Phase Shift, Magnetising in-rush, inter-turn, core & tank faults
  • Differential & Restricted Earth Fault Schemes
  • Bucholz Relay, Oil & Winding Temperature
  • Oil – Testing & Gas Analysis

Switchgear (Busbar) Protection

  • Requirements, Zones, Types
  • Frame Leakage
  • Reverse Blocking
  • High, Medium & Low Impedance Schemes

Motor Protection

  • Thermal overload, time constraints, early relays, starting & stalling conditions
  • Unbalanced supply voltages, negative sequence currents, de-rating factors
  • Phase faults protection
  • Earth Faults – core balance, residual stabilizing resistors

Generator Protection

  • Stator & rotor faults
  • Overload & over-voltage
  • Reverse power, unbalanced loading
  • Loss of excitation and synchronism
  • Typical protection scheme for Industrial Generators

Overhead Line Protection

  • Basic principles of the distance relay
  • Tripping characteristics
  • Application onto power lines
  • Effect of load current & arc resistance
  • Various schemes using power line carrier

Management of Protection

Routine & annual testing, investigation and performance assessment, upgrading

End of the workshop


While both In-House and Online training can present with cost-effectiveness and time-efficacy, there are some very specific differences between in-house courses and those based online.
The demand for additional courses by individuals or groups of people is increasing. Still, it depends entirely on the preferences of a person what type of training he or she wants to receive. Online courses and in-house training carry some similarities but they are considered to exhibit some very pivotal differences too. Despite that, both types of learning can be really beneficial for attendees.

For Registration and other Training arrangements,
contact us on the detail below.

SOUTH AFRICA : +27 11 057 6001
TANZANIA Cell: +255 769 688 544
WhatsApp +27 79 574 0389
info@bmktraining.co.za / www.bmktraining.com